leather coats the surface of the body.This is the largest human organ, is about 16% of the total weight.Leather average man covers an area of approximately 1.5 - 2 m2.The skin is an important organ and represents an insurmountable barrier against the invasion of the outside of bacteria and other foreign organisms.Sweat and sebaceous glands and tear ducts secrete strong antiseptics.When the damaged skin has the ability to self-repair and regeneration.The skin also protects the body from harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun, producing melanin, the dark pigment that absorbs ultraviolet light layer.
People living in those regions, where every year for a long time exposed to strong solar radiation, have adapted to the environment by means of a permanent layer of melanin pigmentation in the skin.Albino have congenital absence of melanin in the skin and therefore can not adapt to a darkening of the skin to sunlight.They have white hair, white skin and very bright eyes.In the presence of sunlight skin p
hair straightened the skin in the cold, holding the warm air near the skin and sweat glands secrete sweat to cool the body when it is too hot.The skin is an important source of information about the world, passing through the superficial brain senses information about touch, pressure, pain and temperature.
skin consists of several layers of different types of cells.The top layer is made up of flattened dead cells that are closely connected to each other, forming a dense, flexible and waterproof surface permanently erased and replaced by the living layers underneath.The average adult replaced during the life of approximately 20 kg of dead skin.The lower layer is called the dermis, composed of living cells.It contains sacs called follicles, which are synthesized by hair.Alokrinnye glands that produce sweat that contains waste products of the body, are located in hair follicles.Sweat glands have outlets across the surface of the skin and secrete brackish liquid.The sebaceous glands that secrete sebum, an oily lubricant have outlets in the hair follicles, and directly on the skin surface.
The skin is saturated with more nerve endings than any other part of the body.The sensations of touch, heat, cold and pain are served each his nerve endings.When excited, they transmit electrical impulses along a peripheral nerve to the spinal cord and sensory centers of the brain.
epidermis and dermis together form a layer thickness of an average of 1 - 2 mm, but in the centuries it is only 0.5 millimeters, and on the palms and soles of the feet where the skin is sealed and forms folds to increase the gripping force, the layer thickness aloneepidermis reaches 1.5 mm.
skin attached to deep tissues by connective tissue, consisting of elastic fibers, called collagen.This allows her to move to a certain extent, providing the mobility of joints.The skin is constantly growing along with the body, but when the body is aging, those parts that are subject Aging sunlight, such as on the face, neck and hands, lose their elasticity.It is caused by rupture of collagen fibers and is expressed in lines and wrinkles.
Nails protect the tips of the fingers and toes from the wear and tear and damage.They can also be used as a weapon of self-defense.Nails are made of keratin, a hard protein that is also present in the outer layers of the skin and hair.
By "sweating" means the allocation of a special liquid sweat glands (sweat).Pot consists of 99% water and 1% of dissolved salts, urea and waste products.For a day in moderate conditions produced an average of 0.7 liters of sweat.Sweating helps maintain normal body temperature in the heat, as the evaporation of sweat from the skin surface causes cooling.Sweating increases during exercise and excitement.
Fresh sweat in a healthy person has almost no odor.At the smell of stale sweat amplified by the fact that the bacteria living on the skin, affect the sweat produced by the apocrine glands, producing odorous substances.Therefore, problems with body odor occur in the hairy parts of the body - in the underarm and genital areas.Here, the shape of the body and cause stagnation of sweat clothes, slowing down the rate of evaporation.
sweating and odor may be aggravated by obesity, consumption of spicy foods, alcohol and coffee.
counteract body odor can be a regular washing and changing clothes that removes bacteria and old sweat.
The smell can be temporarily prevented by using deodorants and / or antiperspirants (deodorants).Antiperspirants block the pores, or "inflate" the surrounding tissue, causing the pores to shrink.Industrial aerosols, sponges, rollers and creams contain both deodorant and antiperspirant agents.Good cream, roller or tampon reduce sweat output by 40% and the aerosol - by 20%.
as deodorants, antiperspirants and cause some people skin irritation.The problem is often solved by using means other brand or containing flavorings.
Foot odor is usually caused by sweating, which is concentrated in a locked area, as shoes and socks create a warm unventilated environment.To prevent foot odor should wash them every day, dry it thoroughly, especially between the toes, and process deodorant for feet.It is important every day - even more often - to change socks and shoes and socks after wash socks to prevent the accumulation of bacteria.When the smell of feet is a serious problem, it is necessary to wash your feet more often than once a day, sprinkle them with antibiotic powder and process special shoes deodorant.
essential element of pigmentation of the skin is melanin, brown pigment, which is in skin cells called melanoblast.Melanoblast in dark-skinned people contain more melanin granules than people with fair skin.The concentration of melanin in human skin is largely determined by heredity.
tiny blood vessels near the skin surface gives it a pinkish hue.Light-skinned people are not albinos, contain in their skin melanoblast that darken the skin color while in the sun.
Ultraviolet radiation from the sun increases the concentration of melanin (See above.) In the skin.In light-skinned people
thus formed freckles and sunburn.Freckles are brown spots of melanin.Tan formed at a uniform increase in the melanin content in the skin.Sun often helps to eliminate acne (See below.).If you are not accustomed to the sun, or have a very light-skinned, sun-bathing should be taken in moderation.The gradual increase in the duration of sunbathing and the use of special creams, a special way of scattering the sunlight, quite effective precautions.
overdose of sun exposure has the same effect as superficial thermal burns, but with a delay of several hours.When a small overdose of treatment are sufficient means of cooling and moisturizing creams.In more serious cases, it may be necessary to the treatment of burns in a hospital setting.
Excessive exposure to heat can lead to heat stroke.Frequent overheating in the sun for a long time causes a rupture of collagen fibers under the skin and formation of wrinkles.It can also lead to the formation of wart-like growths called solar keratosis.More significantly, an increased risk of skin cancer.
Excessive exposure to sunlight is especially dangerous in such countries as Australia and New Zealand, where the protective ozone layer is thinned.
Lupus erythematosus - one of the rare diseases that can cause photosensitivity - an abnormal sensitivity to light, leading to the formation of skin rashes.
From birth on the skin can present several different types of stains.Cavernous hemangioma - reddish, slightly swollen, spongy skin, containing enlarged blood vessels.They are usually quite small and often disappear without treatment.If a cavernous hemangioma does not disappear, it can be reduced by injecting or surgically removed.
Wine stains - dark red flat area of skin containing dilated blood vessels.They are vast and often appear on the face and neck.They can mute the laser therapy or drugs or bleach to cover cosmetics.
in vitiligo skin area is always white, whatever the skin around it.It can be masked, but there is no treatment.Liver spots - dark and look like large freckles.They are caused by a concentration of the skin pigment melanin.They can discolor and mute.
Moles - a raised brown spots on the skin, is an array of cells with a high content of melanin.They may be present from birth, but some appear later.Their number and size often increases during pregnancy.Some birthmarks become overgrown hair that should not pull out because of the danger of infection.Moles should be removed under medical supervision.Most moles are harmless, but you need to keep track of their changes.Sometimes moles are developing in a very fast-growing form of cancer called melanoma (see chap. 1).If a mole has changed its appearance and increased if it turns into an ulcer or bleeding, should immediately consult a doctor.
Warts - are small benign tumors of the skin.They often occur on the hands and soles of the feet.Many warts disappear by themselves, but can be removed more resistant "freeze" or chemical means.
Bruises form when broken small blood vessels under the skin.Blood is poured into the surrounding tissue, giving a characteristic color bruise - first usually black or blue, which is then converted to sometimes purple, green and yellow in proportion as the blood cells are destroyed and their contents are reabsorbed.Cool wet compresses accelerate this process and relieve the pain, but even without treatment most of the bruising disappears in a week.A strong bruise that continues to hurt for a long time, may be a sign of bone fracture.
When the skin is cut, the healing begins immediately:
Black or whiteheads occur when skin pores are blocked by dust, dirt or sebum.Waxy plug, plug the pores, called comedy.It forms a black eel exposed to air;head of comedy by oxidation becomes black.In other cases, a white eel.Time can be cleaned by gently squeezing the tube, but if by education eel some time has passed, it is better to give it to disappear.When cleansing the pores, it is important to avoid skin damage or infection.Pre-wash with warm water relaxes the plug, and then remove the acne skin should be washed with mild astringent, such as the content of hazelnut.
Those who have a tendency to the formation of blackheads, you should wash your face daily antiseptic.A diet low in fatty foods and high in fresh fruits and vegetables will help to correct the excessive production of sebum.Acne can promote skin cosmetics.
This skin disease in which skin, mainly on the face, neck, chest and back, and sometimes on the forearms, striking black and whiteheads and pustules.It is very common among teenagers.A study in the late 1980s in Scotland, revealed the presence of the disease in 93% of boys and 17 years.This disorder usually disappears by mid-twenties, but can also occur in middle age.Acne - a violation of the sebaceous glands of the skin.It is not associated with poor hygiene or diet.Excess money-affected skin is able to make the situation worse.People suffering from acne should stick to a well-balanced healthy diet.Chocolate - fat product, and they should not be abused, but people suffering from acne, there is no reason to give up chocolate.He did not work on this disease, as is commonly believed.
Acne requires skilled medical treatment.Physician classifies acne severity and type - ie,prevalence;determine the presence of black and whiteheads, cysts, inflamed deep abscesses, etc.Classification isolate factors such as rashes from shaving, which can distort the true image of acne, making it to look more serious.In recent years there have been developed some new drugs that are highly effective in the treatment of acne: benzoyl peroxide is most effective in the treatment of non-inflamed acne forms;tretinoin treats painful, inflamed forms of acne, and if other measures are not satisfactory, or at least applied isotretinoin, which, however, can have side effects.Treatment may also include irradiation of UV light, antibiotics (tetracycline) and hormone therapy.People affected by acne often lose confidence in themselves and become socially isolated.In recent years, it was formed support groups, which provide information, advice, support and, if necessary, legal protection.
"Dermatitis" - a general term meaning inflammation of the skin.It is often caused by external irritation of the skin, but can also have a nervous origin.
Some chemicals irritate the skin of any person, but others affect only humans, particularly sensitive, or "allergic" to them.Some of the common allergens include cosmetics, paints, detergents, insecticides, metals, textiles, rubber, and some plants.After exposure to the allergen blood vessels to dilate and become porous, so that liquid collected from cells in the skin, forming blisters that eventually burst.The liquid then dries up and the skin becomes crusty.The crust thickens around wounds and exfoliate the scales.There is a serious risk of infection if the affected skin and comb left untreated.
Recurrences prevented determine the cause, and then avoiding contact with the irritant.However, the identification of the stimulus can be time consuming and require a lot of tests.Good Chinese herbalists know how to cook ointments that many physicians are recognized as extremely effective in the treatment of dermatitis and related diseases, and some patients find useful homeopathic remedies.
This is a common allergic reaction that causes painful blisters on the skin irritated.Often caused by food allergens, such as citrus fruits, shellfish, chocolate and flour products.The reason may be as antibiotics, dust, pollen and stress.Sensitive skin tissues react to allergens, a chemical releasing histamine, expands blood vessels, increases blood flow in the skin, because of which in turn formed a rash.Hives - not too serious disease, and it can be dealt with by softening lotions.If large swelling in the area of the mouth and throat hinder breathing, require medical care.
It is painful, pus-filled blisters, caused by a bacterial infection of the hair follicle, sebaceous or sweat gland or a break in the skin.They usually occur in areas of rubbing the skin clothing, often on the neck and wrists, and can be an indication that a person is not completely healthy.Furuncle disappears only after excision of dead skin that forms the core of the boil.Boils are treated very hot bath and opened a lancet, when they reach the maximum size.If you have multiple boils, you should consult your doctor.
psoriasis or psoriasis - a chronic skin disease characterized by red patches covered with silvery scales loosely surrounding.Psoriasis most commonly affected skin on the elbows, forearms, knees, feet and scalp, but the disease can occur anywhere.The cause of the disease is abnormally large production of keratin.For normal cells to develop mature keratin cell takes 28 days and the person afflicted with psoriasis - only 4 days.
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