People who eat less red meat, may live longer than people who regularly eat burgers, steaks, and pre-processed foods such as bacon, hot dogs and sausages, as a new study shows.In the study, researchers from Harvard University studied the diets of more than 120 000 men and women who were observed in the long-term health surveys of health workers and Nurses' Health Study.Every four years surveyed were asked detailed questions about their eating habits.They were also asked about other factors that determine their health, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, physical exercise and body weight.
When the study began, on average, men were at the beginning of his 50-years.Women were in the middle of its 40 years.Over the next 20 years, researchers found that people who eat more red meat were more likely to die of cancer or heart disease, as opposed to people who reported less daily use beef, pork and lamb.Researchers have estimated that a daily single 3-ounce serving of processed previously not red meat that th
Use pre-processed meats is even more dangerous.Daily single portion of the meat, for example, two slices of bacon, a sausage or hotdog, increased the risk of death from heart disease by 21% and death from cancer by 16%."The pre-processed red meat clearly more harmful than fresh or processed red meat," - said the researcher An Pan, Ph.D., a researcher at the department of nutrition at Harvard School of Public Health in Boston.
Go to the nuts, fish, or chicken meat
Replacing red meat products with a lower content of protein - fish, chicken, nuts, low-fat dairy products, whole grains and legumes may reduce the risk of early death by 7 - 19%.Such findings do research."Replacing red meat almost any other product sometimes significantly reduces the risk," - says Marion Nestle, Ph.D., and medicine, professor of nutrition, food studies and public health at New York University."This is - a call for a more varied diet, which replaces the other red meat products, especially the transition to nuts" - said Nestle, who uchuvstvoval in the study.
«Such lifestyle changes in diet really matter," - said Dean Ornish, MD, founder and president of the nonprofit Preventive Medicine Research Institute in Sausalito, California.He is also a Clinical Professor of Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco."I think everyone would feel much better if they used vegetable diet.But even moderate change - such as replacing chicken beef, chicken or fish - also plays an important role in reducing the risk, "- says Ornish, who wrote a commentary on the study, but not uchuvstvoval it.
reaction food producers
beef producers emphasize that this study is a specific type of research, so-called visibility, which can not indicate cause and effect.They said that other studies have shown that eating lean beef can be part of a healthy diet.
«The one thing all scientists agree, is that responsible dietary recommendations should be presented when looking at the data of the whole organism, and if it is possible in randomized controlled trials on a strict, common standard," - said in a written statement Ph.D.Shelin McNeill.She is the executive director of the Human Nutrition Research at the National Association of Beef Producers."In the case of beef have been several randomized controlled trials, which proved that lean beef, a component of a healthy, balanced diet, improves heart health by lowering cholesterol levels," - she says.
«Last time, the study of optimized lean diet with beef showed that daily consumption of lean beef as part of a healthy diet for the heart, it could reduce the content of harmful LDL-cholesterol" - says McNeill.
Why eat red meat is given so much attention?
Red meat contains a large number of proteins that help maintain muscle performance.It also contains large amounts of iron, which can be useful for people suffering from anemia or iron deficiency.But along with its advantages, red meat, for example, also contains a large amount of saturated fats and cholesterol, which is believed to contribute to heart disease and cancer.
Pre-processed meats such as bacon and salami, often contains large amounts of sodium, which can contribute to high blood pressure.They also contain preservatives such as nitrites, which are associated with the development of cancer, such as cancer of the pancreas, kidneys and bladder.Cooking meat at high temperatures, for example, the preparation of grilled or roast red meat and chicken, as it is known, produces chemicals associated with the development of cancer.
However, the study does not prove that eating red meat is directly harmful to health.It may be that people who drink a lot of red meat, are also another way of life, which can reduce its duration.Indeed, the researchers note that the subjects who eat a lot of red meat, less exercise and are more smoke, drink alcohol and have a weight of overweight than people who do not eat so much red meat.It is known that the researchers were able to organize the findings to try to explain the impact of other unhealthy.
study reflects previous research, which also linked diets high in red meat consumption with a shorter life expectancy.In 2009, a study of the National Cancer Institute found that people who daily consumed the equivalent of a hamburger (weighing ¼ pound) or a small steak for more than 10 years, there was about 30% greater risk of death than people who ate redmeat only occasionally.
high level of red meat consumption is also associated with the development of obesity and diabetes type 2."The idea that eating meat can be harmful to us, it is difficult to understand the generation that uses the drink" Kuleyd "low-carb!" - Says Master of Philosophy and Doctor of Medicine David L. Katz, founder and director of the Prevention Research Center at YaleUniversity in New Haven, Connecticut.
But Katz said that the evidence clearly indicates that more is not always better, especially when it comes to red meat."Eat more meat means a smaller proportion of vegetable consumed calories from vegetables, fruits, nuts, pome fruits, beans, lentils and whole grains - that are always associated with better health," - he says.
Research and commentary published in the "Archives of Internal Medicine."