New research suggests that children who have been to two years in more than one operation under general anesthetic, more likely to develop attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).Experts from the Mayo Clinic analyzed data on 341 child who was diagnosed with ADHD and 19 years old.All of them underwent surgery under general anesthesia until 2 years.In 18 percent of the children who had two or more operations, developed ADHD.Among those who took a single operation, the figure was 11 percent.Among those who did not have to undergo surgery, ADHD has evolved from just over 7 percent.Experts also examined data on children whose mothers underwent general anesthesia during childbirth.
«In the case of caesarean section with a single anesthetic, we have not identified any deviations," - said the study's author, Dr. Juraj Sprung, a professor of anesthesiology at the Mayo Clinic.The study was published in the issue "Procedures for the Mayo Clinic» (Mayo Clinic Proceedings).An early study by the same team of
ADHD is detected, on average, one person out of 10. The syndrome involves a violation of attention and concentration, as well as restless and impulsive behavior.Research suggests that genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in development of nervous system disorders.In the case study of people it is very difficult to distinguish the effects of the operation from the effects of anesthesia."In fact, we did observe and examined the relationship of ADHD not only with anesthesia" - says Sprung.
During early studies on animals, rats underwent anesthesia, there was nerve damage of cortical areas of the brain, so that the rats become hyperactive.Newborn rats also were exposed to the anesthetic ketamine for 24 hours.This affected the ability of rats to perform actions with executive functions.
Dr. Tanya Froehlich, a specialist in behavioral and developmental pediatrics at the Children's Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, was struck by the results of observations of the animals.However, she emphasizes that the causal link between general anesthesia and ADHD have been identified."Any relationship can be refuted by counter-weight - she says.- For example, children with ADHD are more prone to injury.They often break bones, subjected to traumatic brain injury and needed surgery.Children under 2 years old are more active and constantly repairing problems, which lead to injury.With regard to the cases with a family history of the syndrome, it can and does go unnoticed, as guardians and parents themselves often suffer from this syndrome, and pay less attention to what their children are doing, thereby not respecting the precautionary measures. "
In some cases, surgery is performed to correct congenital malformations, which in itself affect the brain, increasing the risk of developing ADHD."That is, to the emergence of ADHD can lead not only surgery and general anesthesia, as such," - said Froehlich."When I read the study, the thought of a number of reasons that could explain the link between anesthesia and ADHD.Thus one is not necessarily different.The study only shows the connection, "- she says.
«It is possible that the results of the study are not applicable to all races and ethnic groups, - she added.- The population in 1976 and 1982.Minnesota was predominantly white. "However, Froehlich said that the study has many strengths.The records are taken, and the baby's weight at birth and the age of his mother, and her education.All this speaks in favor of the study.
Both experts say that parents should not avoid the necessary operations for their children."At the present time we should not make any recommendations based on the study results.If surgery is necessary, it means that it is necessary to hold, - says Sprung.- However, if the surgery is not urgent and can wait, I would have advised her to postpone. "
Froehlich said that the results of the study can not be ignored, even if we take into account all the counterarguments."We as physicians should be aware of these findings and keep them on the note," - she adds.