Scientists from the University of California at San Diego (University of California, San Diego) and the Institute of Cancer Research, Ludwig (Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research) made a double opening, will help you understand the reasons for proper chromosome segregation during division of somatic cells and thus causes uniformdistribution of genetic material between daughter cells.
division of somatic cells of animal and vegetable origin, or mitosis, was described in the late XIX century.Scientists knew that the chromosomes - the carriers of hereditary information, doubled just before mitosis.Subsidiaries chromosomes line up along the equator dividing cell and taken away to the opposite poles in a way that ensures their strict distribution between daughter cells.
cell structure that provides a chromosome segregation, called spindle division and represents the microtubule system.However, until now it was not known how chromosomes attached to spindle microtubules, and which mechanism ensures correct jo
Jan Chizmanu (Iain Cheeseman) from the group of Professor Arshad Disa (Arshad Desai) managed to isolate and identify a group of proteins involved in the creation of the complex, which carries out the attachment of chromosomes to the spindle microtubules.The presence of this protein complex, even in primitive single-celled organisms suggests ancient origins and its wide dissemination.
Another researcher from the group of Professor Diza, Sharsti Sandal (Sharsti Sandall), identified a second group of proteins whose job is to determine the correctness of the spindle attachment to a particular chromosome.In case of wrong connection, the second protein complex activates protein Aurora, which chemically modifies the first protein complex.As a result, the connection properly attached to the spindle of chromosome division is broken.
These findings, in addition to the fundamental, are of great practical importance.It is known that in human cancers occurs uncontrolled mitotic cell division, so chemotherapeutic treatment of cancer is based on non-specific effects of drugs on microtubule spindle.As a result, the correct course of mitosis is violated in all cells of the body, not just in cancer, which leads to undesirable side effects of treatment - severe pain and loss of vision, hearing, smell, and other kinds of sensitivity.
presence of specific target - the proteins that make up the newly discovered complexes will allow to develop new drugs with significantly more narrow spectrum, and, consequently, much weaker side effects.