What is the analysis?
genitourinary system (especially the kidneys) during pregnancy are subject to the double load.Gradually growing uterus and baby putting pressure on the kidneys, resulting in a loss of function significantly (up to the development of kidney disease).Buds during the childbearing work "for two", because they have to deal with excretion of metabolic products is not only the mother's body, but also the fetus.
Urinalysis (OAM) in pregnancy - most often appointed by the kind of research.It is mandatory method of prenatal diagnosis and surrender before each visit to a leading pregnancy obstetrician-gynecologist.
OAM shall for the purpose of early detection of any deviation from the normal course of pregnancy.For example, increasing the level of acetone in urine indicates liver and cause excessive vomiting (toxemia) pregnant.The sugar in urine may indicate the beginning of diabetes.The appearance of protein in the urine (especially when combined with high blood pressure and edema
Standards indicators of urinalysis during pregnancy
number (throughout the morning portion) - from 150 to 250 milliliters.
Color - from light yellow (straw) to deep yellow.On the color of urine is influenced by "coloring" foods (such as beets) and drugs (eg, salicylates).
Transparency urine normally must be absolute.Turbid urine - a sign of increased phosphate levels in the urine (what is dangerous, we will explain later).
Specific gravity (density) - his normal rate ranges from 1010 to 1030 g / l.This characteristic of the urine indicates how well the kidneys perform the filtering function.It is influenced by the amount of allocated salts, uric acid, urea (and other organic compounds), potassium chloride, sodium and total urine.Increased specific gravity - a sign of inflammation of the kidneys (glomerulonephritis), low fluid intake (or greater losses), as well as the possible presence of diabetes.Lowering the proportion of evidence often chronic renal failure.
acidity (pH) - can be alkaline or (if you're a vegetarian), or acidic (while eating meat).But if you do not practice vegetarianism during pregnancy and have an alkaline reaction of urine, it is most likely a manifestation of chronic inflammation in the urinary tract.Despite the fact that the acidic reaction of urine is considered normal (at a pH of 5 to 7), the increase of acidity is a sign of renal failure, diabetes mellitus, and also observed in fevers and tuberculosis bladder and kidneys.
a healthy person, urine protein should not be, but its appearance suggests the development or exacerbation of kidney disease and in pregnant women is a sign of the beginning of preeclampsia (pregnancy may be a small presence of protein - up to 0.075 g / l).
leukocytes considered within the normal range, if they are non-existent or figure does not exceed 5 units.Above this indicator (especially in combination with the bacteria in the urine, painful urination and fever) can speak of infectious inflammation of the urinary tract and kidneys.
Red blood cells normally either totally absent or are in the range of up to 3 units in the field of view.
bacteria in the urine normally do not have to be present.Their presence - a sign of acute or chronic diseases of the genitourinary system and kidneys.
bilirubin, ketones and glucose normal urine sample no.
Cylinders in normal urine test available (allowed individual hyaline).Presence of cylinders in the urine suggests kidney damage, especially in the analysis, there is also a protein, and renal epithelium.
deviations in analyzes
Consider the most frequent abnormalities found in the analysis of the urine of pregnant women.
protein in the urine (proteinuria) - normal protein in the urine of a healthy person should not even present!However, during pregnancy acceptable small amount.But if the rate of protein exceeding 300 mg per day, it speaks about the problems in the urinary system are women.In identifying the protein in the urine sample a woman put on the account to a nephrologist (urologist) in order to prevent possible complications.
If the increase in protein in the urine occurred after 32 th week of pregnancy (in conjunction with an increase in blood pressure), it is a sign of nephropathy.The disease causes dysfunction of the placenta, so that the fetus becomes vulnerable to external negative factors and not getting enough oxygen and nutrients.Because of this deviation may occur in the child's development, there is a risk of premature birth and even intrauterine death of the baby.Upon confirmation of a woman hospitalized nephropathy and carry out patient treatment.If treatment is not possible, then (in order to save the child's life, and sometimes mothers) doctors are forced to resort to the induction of labor (induce premature labor or to hold an emergency cesarean section).
bacteria in urine (bacteriuria) - very common during pregnancy.Detection of bacteria in the urine (usually E. coli Escherihia coli) - the first sign of pyelonephritis.The disease is dangerous because it can provoke the premature birth of a child into the world.
But the most dangerous condition is asymptomatic bacteriuria in which there are no clinical signs of kidney disease and urinary tract in women.But this does not mean that the child is not suffering!That is why it is imperative to be tested, in a timely manner to prevent the occurrence of danger to the health of the baby and his mother.
leukocytes in urine (leukocyturia) - are a sign of infection and kidney disease pyelonephritis, which could adversely affect the child's development, and in the course of pregnancy in general.
phosphates in urine - when the amount of talk about the problems of the urinary tract of women.Thus expectant mother urine becomes turbid, i.e. it appear in large number of erythrocytes, bacteria, white blood cells and the impurity salts (calcium oxalate, urate, phosphate, etc.), And in some cases - even present pus.Normally, a pregnant woman is a decrease the level of salts in the urine, as a significant portion of their leaves on the formation of skeletal children.The same decrease in notes and after childbirth, as salts are actively involved in milk production.
urine acidity (pH) - with decreasing acidity can talk about the beginning of early toxicity, and dehydration due to vomiting, diarrhea, etc.also lowering the acidity indicates a lack of potassium in the body of a woman.
ketone bodies in urine - a sign of early pregnancy toxemia.
any abnormalities in the urine of a woman standing on account of pregnancy, accompanied by changes and other factors, so the diagnosis on the basis of only one analysis is not no doctor.Upon receipt of a bad outcome study of urine woman sent to additional examination - it can be re- urinalysis (OAM), the general (clinical) blood test (KLA), urine culture, a urine sample by sample Zimnitsky, urine on Nechiporenko and other.All this is necessary in order to confirm or refute the diagnosis suspected development of any disease.
How to collect urine for analysis?
to urine did not find "fake protein", it is necessary to collect the analysis carefully wash genitals and close the vagina with a cotton swab.Urine should be collected only in a clean, dry bowl, with start (and finish) should urinate on the toilet, and to analyze the need to collect midstream urine only.
Urine is suitable for research only and only in the morning for two hours after collection.After this time, many components of erode and urine fall bacteria, whereby performance analysis will be distorted.