Why study in pregnancy?
analysis of the composition of blood, urine and other fluids and secretions of the body - is an essential element of health control.These studies pregnancy allow to identify possible violations at its early stages.Particular attention is being paid to women's health in this period is a mandatory holding many laboratory studies.
If the mother has Rh-negative (Rh), there is a need to determine the Rh blood group belonging and also to the child's father.If the mother is Rh (-), the father of Rh (+) - for the period of pregnancy definitely several times to explore antirhesus number of antibodies in the serum of the mother.Rh-negative women, the introduction of Rh immunoglobulin for the period of twenty-eight - thirty-two weeks in the absence of antibodies in the blood antirhesus.Another dose administered immunoglobulin woman for seventy two hours (three days) after delivery.Pregnant women who have Rh positive, these studies are not necessary.
Analyses Required for delivery during pregnancy:
- HBs-antigen - on the analysis of hepatitis B virus - at the beginning of pregnancy.
- RW - Wasserman test (syphilis) - at the beginning (the first call to the antenatal clinic) and in late pregnancy.
- Urinalysis - monthly.
- morphology of blood - a general analysis - every three months.
- of serum glucose - at the beginning and at the 7th month of pregnancy.
- TTG - tolerance test (predisposition), glucose ("hidden gestational diabetes") - at 24-26 weeks of gestation.
- AFP (the level of alpha-fetoprotein) and β-hCG, a prenatal test - 16-18 weeks.
- Papp (PAPP) - pregnancy-associated plasma protein, the prenatal test - 11-13 weeks.
- Cytology - a full morphological analysis of the cervical epithelium, is excluded oncology - at the beginning of pregnancy.
- swab from the urethra, cervix, vaginal walls flora - direct microscopic study of vaginal flora - the beginning of pregnancy.
- Coagulation - blood clotting - in the beginning (at the first prenatal visit) pregnancy and at 30 weeks.
first analysis of pregnancy
first study during pregnancy (or suspected it), which every woman can make no special recommendation of a doctor - a pregnancy test.It consists in that in the urine of women to detect the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-subunit) of human (the so-called beta-hCG).This hormone is released by cells of the embryo already after a few days after the egg is fertilized.HCG - one of the most important indicators of pregnancy.To carry out the procedure at home quite a few drops of urine women who studied according to the instructions supplied with the test.If the result is in doubt, carry out laboratory tests.Beta-hCG can be detected in the blood.Its concentration there is a thousand times greater than in the urine, therefore, pregnancy by a blood test can be diagnosed earlier.
Research on group and Rh blood
At the very beginning of pregnancy is necessary to clarify the group and Rh factor (Rh) blood woman.This study during pregnancy should be performed twice so that the result is not to be questioned.Information about the group and Rh blood supplies have to be recorded in the identification document (eg passport) that in case of an emergency, do not waste your precious time on extra laboratory studies.During pregnancy, the risk of bleeding is pretty high - sometimes need urgent transfusion of blood serum, which requires knowledge of the group and Rh factor with absolute precision.This analysis is done within half an hour, and for bleeding every minute.The most common blood group - is I («0») and II («A»);less common Group III («B») and IV («AB").
called Rh factor antigen (protein) contained in red blood cells.The value of this antigen is an important indicator of the health hazards of a child.If the mother is a carrier of negative Rh and the father - the positive and the child will inherit the father's blood type, it is possible Rh-conflict.It is fraught with various pathologies of pregnancy, due to the fact that the fetal red blood cells are in the mother's blood.As a result of this "infusion" from the expectant mother formed Rh antibodies, which act destructively on the Rh-positive fetal red blood cells, and is often a cause of hemolytic disease of the newborn.
|Inheritance of blood groups|
|father + mother||child||father + mother||child|
|O (I) + O (I)||O (I)||B (III) + B (III)||B (III) or O (I)|
|A (II) + A (II)||A (II) or O (I)||B (III) + O (I)||B (III) or O (I)|
|A (II) + O (I)||A (II) or O (I)||B(III) + AB (IV)|| A (II), B (III) |
or AB (IV)
|A (II) + B (III)|| A (II), B (III),O (I) |
or AB (IV)
|AB (IV) + AB (IV)|| A (II), B (III) |
or AB (IV)
|A (II) + AB (IV)|| A (II), B (III) |
or AB (IV)
|AB (IV) + O (I)||A (II) or B (III)|
urinalysis and CBC during pregnancy
Urinalysis gives the physician a detailed insight into the work of the kidneys and the activities of all the woman's body.It is based on the study of physical and chemical parameters and their microscopic urine sediment thickened in a centrifuge.For his conduct is going to morning urine (its average jet).If an infection is conducted bacteriological research or planting, urine.
Red blood cells contain iron and transport oxygen.If the analysis shows that the number of red blood cells decreased, this may indicate anemia, which often develops during pregnancy.In addition, these tests can monitor the amount of white (WBC) and red (red blood cells) of blood cells, red blood cell volume fraction in whole blood (hematocrit), hemoglobin (the color indicator of red blood cells that carry oxygen and carbon dioxide).It is important to identify and blood levels of platelets (cells responsible for blood clotting).The number of white blood cells necessary to know the detection and monitoring of infectious diseases and tumors.For a more detailed study of pregnancy make a detailed analysis of the blood.
|INDICATORS blood count|
|hematocrit (volume filtered red blood cells in whole blood)||Ht or Hct||33-45%|
|hemoglobin (hemoglobin level)||Hb or HBG||110-140 g / l|
|leukocytes (white blood cells)||WBC or L||4,0-9,0h109 / l|
|erythrocytes (red blood cells)||RBC or E||3,5-4,5h1012 / l|
|average weight of hemoglobin in red blood cells||MCH||27-34 pg|
|average level of hemoglobin in red blood cells||MCHC||318-354 g / l|
|mean corpuscular volume||MCV||79-97 fl|
|Platelets||PLT||180-360h109 / l|